Wto Agreement On Trade-Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property

A 2003 agreement relaxed the requirements of the single market and allowed developing countries to export to other countries where there is a national health problem, as long as the exported medicines are not part of a trade or industrial policy. [10] Medicines exported under such a regime may be repackaged or coloured to prevent them from affecting the markets of developed countries. Since the entry into force of travel, it has been criticized by developing countries, scientists and non-governmental organizations. While some of these criticisms are directed at the WTO in general, many proponents of trade liberalization also view the TRIPS Agreement as bad policy. The effects of concentrating the wealth of TRIPS (the movement of money from people in developing countries to copyright and patent holders in developed countries) and the imposition of artificial scarcity on citizens of countries that would otherwise have had weaker intellectual property laws are common grounds for such criticism. Other criticisms have focused on TRIPS` failure to accelerate the flow of investment and technology to low-income countries, an advantage promoted by WTO members in the run-up to the agreement`s creation. World Bank statements suggest that the TRIPS Agreement has not led to a demonstrable acceleration of investment in low-income countries, although it may have done so for middle-income countries. [33] Long TRIPS patent terms have been investigated to unduly slow down generic substitutes market entry and competition. In particular, the illegality of preclinical studies or the submission of samples for approval until a patent expires has been accused of having led to the growth of a few multinationals rather than producers in developing countries. This is likely due to the lack of legal and technical expertise needed to draft legislation to implement flexibility, which has often led developing countries to directly copy developed countries` intellectual property legislation[17][18] or to rely on technical assistance from the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), which, according to critics such as Cory Doctorow, encourages them to: establish stronger monopolies on intellectual property. The TRIPS Agreement sets minimum standards for the protection of copyright and related rights, trademarks, geographical indications (FDI), industrial designs, patents, draft integrated circuit layouts and undisclosed information. The TRIPS Agreement also establishes minimum standards for the enforcement of intellectual property rights (IPRs) through civil infringement actions, border actions and, at least with respect to copyright inspiration and counterfeiting, through criminal measures. News on the TRIPS Council and intellectual property at the WTO, prepared for non-specialists.